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Memory Model for High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM)

This Cadence® Verification IP (VIP) provides support for the JEDEC® High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM) DRAM device standard. It provides a mature, highly capable compliance verification solution that supports simulation, formal analysis, and hardware acceleration platforms, making it applicable to intellectual property (IP), system-on-chip (SoC), and system-level verification. The Memory Model for HBM models a single channel of HBM DRAM; this model can be replicated for multiple channels and multiple ranks. The Memory Model for HBM runs on all leading simulators, and leverages the industry-standard Cadence Memory Model core architecture, interface, and use model.

The HBM DRAM standard is an industry-leading, low-power, double-data-rate, high-data-width, volatile (DRAM) device memory standard for storage of system code, software applications, and user data. The HBM DRAM Memory Device Standard is designed to satisfy the performance and memory density demands of the leading-edge mobile devices.

Specification Support

The Memory Model for HBM supports a single-channel implementation version of the HBM DRAM specification, and can be used eight times to model a single 8-channel device.

Release
JEDEC Standard
VIPCAT 11.3.051 JESD235B Rev 2.40 and 2.50
VIPCAT 11.3.045 JESD235B Rev 2.20
VIPCAT 11.3.038 JESD235B Rev 2.01
VIPCAT 11.3.031 JESD235 Rev 1.27
VIPCAT 11.3.033 JESD235 Rev 1.31

Feature Highlights

The following table describes key features from the specification that are implemented in the VIP.

Feature Name
Description
I/O Signals and Buses: data, control, address All I/O signals including RD, RR and RC are supported by HBM
Clocking and Reset Differential clock inputs (CK_t/CK_c) and Active Low Reset Line(reset_n)
Command Decode
  • Reset
  • Mode Register Set
  • Precharge Same Bank 
  • Precharge All Bank
  • Refresh Single Bank
  • Refresh All Bank
  • Activate
  • Read
  • Read with Auto Precharge
  • Write
  • Write with Auto Precharge
  • Power Down Entry
  • Self Refresh Entry
  • Power Down/Self Refresh Exit
Initialization Sequence and Skip Initialization The initialization sequence of HBM model is supported with all the timing checks (also IEEE 1500 Stable Power Initialization); this sequence can be skipped, too
Mode Registers The command is used to load the Mode Registers of the HBM device to configure different functionality of the HBM model
General HBM Functionality and Timing Checks Precharge, Activate, Read, Write, Mode Register Set, Power Down, Self Refresh, Initializations, and all related timing checks
Support for 1GB, 2GB, and 4GB Legacy Modes Size is programmable using SOMA; we model a single channel which can be replicated eight times to generate a 8-channel model
Support for Pseudo Channel Mode - 2GB, 4GB, 8GB Size is programmable using SOMA; we model a single channel which can be replicated eight times to generate a 8-channel modelDivides a channel into two individual sub-channels of 64 bit I/O each
SID The stack ID (SID) acts as a bank address bit in command execution
Error-Correcting Code HBM DRAM devices support ECC (one bit per data byte); the HBM Model does not compute any ECC. ECC bits are not included in parity calculation when Write or Read DQ Parity Function is enabled
Data Mask and Data Bus Inversion Data on the bus can be inverted during both read and write to save power; both Data Mask and Data Bus inversion features can be set through mode registers
C/A and Data Parity Check Parity checking is off by default
When C/A parity is enabled, the parity is checked for each command before execution
When write parity is enabled, the parity is checked for each write data word (DQ, DM,DBI)
When read parity is enabled, the model generates parity signal for each read data word
Errors are reported through AERR and DERR signals
Targeted Row Refresh Mode The TRR mode will refresh the rows adjacent to the TRn that encountered MAC(Maximum Activate Count) limit; there could be one or two target rows in a bank associated to one victim row
The cumulative value of the Activates from two target rows on a victim row should not exceed MAC value as well
Support for IEEE 1500/DFT Commands and Features  HBM DFT support using IEEE 1500 interface feature:
  • LFSR, AWORD and DWORD MISR
  • LFSR compare (Sticky bit)
  • Hard Lane repair and Soft lane repair
  • Extest TX and Extest RX
  • Device Id and Temperature Instructions
  • Mode Register Dump Set
Loopback Test Mode Support
  • Register, LFSR, MISR, LFSR Compare (Sticky bit)

 

 HBM DFT support using loopback mode feature
Soft Lane Repair and Hard Lane Repair The HBM DRAM supports interconnect lane remapping to help recover functionality of the HBM stack
Lane remapping is independent for each channel
The HBM can be programmed to retain the remapped lane information even when power is completely removed from the HBM stack
Except CK_t, Ck_c , CKE and AERR, all other I/Os can be remapped using AWORD and DWORD Remapping
DWORD Repair Mode HBM model supports two Repair Mode for DWORD remapping:
  • In Mode 1, it is allowed to remap one lane per byte; no redundant pin is allocated in this mode, and DBI functionality is lost for that byte only, however other bytes continue to support DBI function as long as the Mode Register setting for DBI function is enabled
  • In Mode 2, it is allowed to remap one lane per double byte; one redundant pin (RD) per double byte is allocated in this mode, and DBI functionality is preserved as long as the Mode Register setting for DBI function is enabled
RD, RC, and RR HBM model support Redundant Row, Column values for AWORD Repair and Redundant Data(4 bits) value supported for DWORD Reapir functionality
State Machine and Timing Checks Implements internal HBM state machine and performs various command to command timing checks
Data Width 128-bit wide data bus
Pseudo channel mode with 64-bit data per pseudo channel
DDR for Command and Data Phase
Device Density Support The model supports a wide range of device densities from 1Gb to 32Gb
Differential ck/rdqs/wdqs Differential clock and data referenced to strobes RDQS_t/RDQS_c and WDQS_t/WDQS_c
1 strobe pair per DWORD
Read/Write strobes for each pseudo channel are driven/read simultaneously
Bank Groups Modeling the concept and the timing associated with the back-to-back accesses to the same and different bank group

Refresh

All bank, per-bank and self-refresh; refresh timing check; Normal mode refresh, Self refresh, Temperature controller self refresh supported
Cattrip and Temp Pin HBM cattrip and Temp Pins functionality support for Temperature-controlled Refresh and Catastrophic Temperature Sensor

IEEE 1500 Functionality

Key features from the specification that are implemented in the VIP are shown below:

Feature Name
Description
 IEEE 1500 and Loopback  LFSR, AWORD and DWORD MISR, LFSR Compare (Sticky bit register); supports DFT and trainingbetween the Host and HBM device
Port Modifications for HBM Specification  
EXTEST_RX EXTEST_RX is intended for DC I/O connectivity testing similar to board level boundary scan; the receive notation designates that the HBM I/O will sample the logic value and capture into the data register the value that is present at the micro bump interface
EXTEST_TX EXTEST_TX is intended for DC I/O connectivity testing similar to board level boundary scan; the transmit notation designates that the HBM I/O will preload the logic value shifted into the data register at the micro bump interface
Mode Register Dump This instruction provides IEEE Std 1500 access to read and write the HBM Mode Registers; when this instruction is updated into the WIR, the Mode Registers values are loaded into the MODE_REGISTER_ DUMP_SET WDR on Capture and the values in the shift data register are updated to the Mode Register upon update
Soft and Hard Lane Repair The SOFT_LANE_REPAIR and HARD_LANE_REPAIR instructions are used to convey lane remapping and repair information; both instructions use the same LANE_REPAIR WDR
HBM Reset The HBM_RESET instruction is intended to initiate an asynchronous functional reset of the HBM upon update, equivalent to assertion of RESET_n; MR registers and HBM functional logic is reset upon update of HBM_RESET instruction
Backdoor Access to all IEEE 1500 WDR Registers HBM model supports backdoor access to all IEEE 1500 WDR registers

Key Verification Capabilities

  • Backdoor access: Allows backdoor reads and writes to mode registers as well as device memory
  • User ability to dynamically change timing parameter values or swap parts (somas)
  • Callbacks: 
    • Memory and and transaction callbacks for reads and writes; transaction callbacks for all other commands
    • Transaction protocol callbacks at command execution, data passed, and errors—for tie in to user's testbench scoreboard and reference model, with user ability to modify some fields to cause error injection (not in Verilog)
  • Comprehensive assertion library: Includes a large number of assertions for assertion coverage

  • Power-on initialization sequence can be optionally skipped to save simulation time

  • Transaction and memory callbacks for all protocol and device memory events (Read/Write)
  • Refresh checks can be optionally skipped
  • Differential clock checks with configurable skew
  • UVM configuration: The user can configure the VIP agent using the UVM config class
  • IEEE 1500 and Loopback mode  support

 Other Supported Features

Methodologies Unified Verification Methodology (UVM), OVM
Simulators IES, VCS, and MTI
Testbench Language Interfaces Verilog, VHDL, SystemVerilog, e, and SystemC
Trace Debug Yes